ページ内を移動するためのリンクです。


National Institute of Population and Social Security Research

  • size

  1. Top Page
  2. About Institute : Annual Population and Social Security Surveys


About Institute

Annual Population and Social Security Surveys
The National Fertility Survey
Since 1940, the National Fertility Survey has been conducted every 5 years to investigate the situation and issues of marriage, childbirth and child-rearing in Japan. The survey is carried out separately for both married couples and unmarried individuals, exploring policy-related issues from the perspective of social science. Japan continues to experience declining fertility rates, which leads to population decline and population aging as well as other changes in people's lives. In the coming years, these changes will have a major infl uence on Japanese society. One of the important themes of the survey is to understand the mechanisms of fertility change and its underlying causes.
The results of the survey are used in various academic research initiatives and policy planning, such as setting fertility assumptions for Population Projections for Japan, evaluating the policy targets of the Basic Plan for Gender Equality (e.g. the proportion of continuous employment after the 1st birth, 55%, 2010), and for many other offi cial reports (e.g. Annual Health, Labour and Welfare Report, White Paper on Gender Equality, Declining Birthrate White Paper), in addition to governmental policy committee documents.
The figure below-left shows the employment status of wives before and after giving birth to their first child. Between 2010 and 2014, the percentage of women employed both before and after birth was 38.3%, a large increase compared to previous years. Of note is the signifi cant growth in the percentage of wives who used parental leave after their fi rst child. Of wives who worked before giving birth, 53.1% continued their employment. The fi gure below-right shows the ideal, intended and desired number of children of both unmarried people and married couples. Overall, average numbers for both the ideal number and intended number of children for married couples, and the desired number of children for unmarried people has been declining since the 1980s.
●Changes in employment status of wives before and after giving birth, by year of birth of first child
Changes in employment status of wives before and after 
giving birth to their first child, by year of birth of first 
child
●Changes in the average ideal, intended and desired number of children, by survey
Changes in the average ideal and intended number of 
children, by survey
The National Survey on Migration
The National Survey on Migration is conducted to observe trends in the lifetime geographic mobility of the people living in Japan, as well as prospects of future migration patterns. Started in 1976, the quinquennial survey provides detailed data on individual migration experience that cannot be obtained from other governmental statistics. The 8th National Survey on Migration, conducted in July 2016, reveals the lifetime mobility of people residing in Japan, including foreigners, and resulted indicators are shown by each prefecture. Due to the population ageing, both past mobility and future prospect of migration are diminishing slowly. The most frequent reasons for migration are housing related reasons, workrelated reasons and change in marital status. 68.6% of people are living in the prefecture which they were born and 20.4% of people are return migrant. 17.3% of people considered that they might move within five years. The results of the survey are used in formulating relevant policies and regional population projections in Japan.
●Prospects for migration in the next 5 years (2006) and migration over the last 5 years (2011)
Proportion of return migrant by prefecture of birth
The National Survey on Social Security and People's Life
Japanese society is undergoing population ageing and changes in household structures at an unprecedented speed. In order to maintain the long-term sustainability of our social security system, it is necessary to implement a series of reforms while also keeping in mind a delicate balance of self-help, mutual-help (by family members) and public help. The National Survey on Social Security and People’s Life is conducted to understand the challenges people face regarding their living conditions, and how they cope with them by supporting each other ? through family members and within communities.
●Ratio (%) who responded that their living standard is “Harsh” or “Very Harsh,” by sex, age and work status
Especially among men in their 30’s to 60’s who are not working, the ratio responding “Harsh” or “Very Harsh” is very high.
Ratio (%) who responded that their living standard is 
“Harsh” or “Very Harsh,” by sex, age and work status
●Frequency of Conversation: by Household (hh) type (Persons aged 65 and above)
Among elderly persons aged 65 and above, most have conversations with someone at least every day. However, among elderly men who live in single-person households, 16.7% have conversation less than once in two weeks.
Frequency of Conversation: by Household (hh) type 
(Persons aged 65 and above)
The National Survey on Family
Accompanied by low fertility rates and population aging, the functions of Japanese families have undergone significant transformation, in addition to such changes as the increase in dual income households and single-person households. The National Survey on Family attempts to capture the changes in family functions, such as the bearing and rearing of children, supporting and nursing elderly parents, and so on. The survey results are used as valuable materials for various political and administrative uses.
●Reason for continuing to work while providing nursing care
While various schemes regarding long-term care insurance assist in continuing employment, the understanding and cooperation of husbands is also necessary.
Reason for continuing to work while providing nursing care
The number of replies for the first and second reasons are split between the total number of people who continue working while providing care.
Source:The 5th National Survey on amily in Japan, 2013
The National Survey on Household Changes
Households in Japan are undergoing significant changes. These changes not only include the expected decline in the number of total households, but also the increase in one-person households, couple-only households, and single parent households. The National Survey on Household Changes attempts to capture the detailed process of formation, expansion, compression and dissolution of households. Such data on household dynamics are difficult to find in other surveys, and the results are used not only in policy purposes but also in household projections.
●Distribution by family type and transition probability (%)
エンプティ・ネストの発生率
Single-person and couple-only households are increasing. The distribution in convergence suggests that single-person households will continue to increase to nearly 40% when the transition probabilities are fixed over time.