Child Related Policies in Japan

published in 2003

National Institute of Population and Social Security Research


This small booklet is a part of the fruits of two-year collaborative work by project members of Studies on the Effects of Child Allowance, Taxation and Childcare Services on Familial Households, which received grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare from 2001 to 2003. While the core outcome of the project has been published in the form of papers in academic journals and reports, this booklet is written to provide basic information for foreign researchers as well as general readers about institutions and policies targeted to families with children in Japan. The concern over lack of even introductory readings accessible for foreign researchers on the issue of policies for families with children has become acute among the project members, especially after participating in the international workshop on Low Fertility and Social Policies held in Tokyo on November 21-22, 2002. Seeds of this booklet were sown when project members saw that demographers at the workshop were eager to get some information about policies designed to improve welfare of families with children, childcare system, and cash benefits to families with children in Japan. As project members, we hope that this small booklet will be a comprehensive guide to institutions and policies for families with children in Japan.
March, 2003


Chapter 1 Toward Population Declining Society Recent Trends in Fertility and Marriage in Japan . . . . . 1
Chapter 2 Policies Targeted to Families with Children Policy Responses to Declining Fertility . . . . . . . . . 13
Chapter 3 Social Security Expenditure for Households with Children . . . . . . . . . . 22
Chapter 4 Childcare System in Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Chapter 5 Child Poverty and Inequality Public transfers to Families with Children . . . . . . . . 44

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