The Second National Survey on Family in Japan
Report (Summary)

March, 2000
The National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Japan

  1. Introduction

The date of the survey
July 1, 1998

Questionnaires distributed
13,630 (Among them 11,951 were analyzed as valid responses. The proportion of valid responses accounted for 87.7 percent of all questionnaires distributed.)

Total sample for analysis and estimation in this survey
8,186 married women (Compared to the total sample of 7,578 married women in the previous survey in 1993)

The objective of the survey
The survey was conducted to understand various factors and trends behind changes in family functions, by looking at situations in childbearing, child rearing, care of the elderly, and relationships between family members. The analysis in this report are based on data obtained from those questionnaires which had been filled out properly by married women.

  • Summary of the survey report
    1. Married women's parents as human resources for child rearing

  • Grown-up children of married women
  • Sharing of family responsibilities between husband and wife
    1. The average time married women spent on household chores and the level of husbands' participation in household work

  • Sharing of responsibility for child rearing
  • The trend in husbands' participation in child rearing
  • The level of married women's appreciation of their husbands' participation in household work and child rearing
  • Communication between husband and wife
    1. Communication between husband and wife

  • Decision making in married-couple households
  • Balancing time between work and child rearing activities
  • Among all married women, 50 percent had returned to work after the childbearing, while 20 percent did not participate in the labor force in 1998. Among the same population, those who were DINKS (dual incomes, no kids) - those who had two incomes and no children, represented a small proportion. The ideal and the reality were matching the most for those who had returned to work after the temporal interruption due to childbearing

  • Married women's attitude towards the conventional norms of Japanese families
    1. Married women's perspective on the roles of husbands and wives

  • Married women's views on child rearing
  • Married women's views on relationships between grown-up children and their elderly parents/parents-in-law
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